Ⅰ. Write short notes on: Harold Stearn, Gertrude Stein and Earnest Hemingway.
１. Harold E. (Edmond) Stearns (1891--1943), in America and the Young Intellectuals(1921),stated the credo of the post-war generation in the United States, which he said \the type of people who dominate in our present civilization \attitude appeared in the symposium that he edited, Civilization in the United States: An Enquiry by Thirty Americans (1922). With his return from expatriation from France and growing awareness of social action in place of escape, described in The Street I know (1935), he prepared a new manifesto, America :A Re-Appraisal (1937), again a symposium by leading critics. (Note: There is a misprint in Exercise I. The name Steam should be Stearns. )
2. Gertrude Stein (1874--1946), American author and patron of the arts. A celebrated personality, she encouraged, aided, and influenced -- through her patronage as well as through her writing -- many literary and artistic figures. In 1902 she went abroad and from 1903 until her death lived chiefly in Paris. In Paris, Stein became interested in modern art movements; she encouraged and purchased the work of many new painters, including Picasso and Matisse. During the 1920s she was the leader of a cultural salon, which included such writers as Hemingway, Sherwood Anderson, F. Scott Fitzgerald, all of whose works she influenced. It was she who first coined the phrase \those post world war I expatriates. During World War Ⅱ she remained in France, and after the war her Paris home became a meeting place for American soldiers. Stein' s own innovative writing emphasizes the sounds and rhythms rather than the sense of words. By departing from conventional meaning, grammar, and syntax, she attempted to capture \of consciousness\in-dependent of time and memory. Some of her best known works are: Three Lives(1909), The Making of Americans (1925), Autobiography of Alice 13. Toklas (1933) (her own autobiography presented as that of her secretary companion).
3. Ernest Hemingway (1899--1961), American novelist and short story writer, one of the great American writers of the 20th century. Hemingway's fiction usually focuses on people living essential, dangerous lives - soldiers, fisher- men, athletes, bullfighters -- who meet the pain and difficulty of their existence with stoic courage. His celebrated literary style, influenced by Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein, is direct, terse and often monotonous, yet particularly suited to his elemental subject matter. During World War I he served as an ambulance driver in France and in the Italian infantry and was wounded just before his 19th birthday. Later, while working in Paris as correspondent for the Toronto Star, he became involved with the expatriate circle surrounding Gertrude Stein. With the publication of The Sun Also Rises (1926), he was recognized as the spokesman of the
\generation\(so-called by Gertrude Stein). The novel concerns a group of psychologically bruised, disillusioned expatriates living in post-war Paris, who take psychic refuge in such immediate physical activities as eating, drinking, travelling, brawling and lovemaking. During the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway served as a correspondent on the loyalist side~ from this experience came his great novel For Whom the Bell Tdls (1940), which, in detailing an incident in the war, argues for human brotherhood. Hemingway fought in World War Ⅱ and then settled in Cuba in 1945. His novelette The Old Man and the Sea (1952) celebrates the indomitable courage of an aged Cuban fisherman. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime, he moved to Idaho. He was increasingly plagued by ill health and diminishing mental faculties, and in July, 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself. Some of his other well-known works are: A Farewell to Arms (1929), Death in the Afternoon (1932), \of short stories as Men without Women (1927),Win- her Take Nothing (1933) and the First Forty-nine Stories (1938). Ⅱ.Questions on content:
1. Why were the younger generation of the 1920s thought to be wild? 2. Was there really a younger generation problem?
3. Was there a revolt of the younger generation? How did it manifest itself? 4. Why was the revolt logical and inevitable?
5. What does the writer mean by \ 6. How did World War I affect the younger generation?
7. In what ways did Greenwich Village set the pattern for the revolt of the younger generation of the 1920s?
8. What new philosophy were the young intellectuals trying to preach? 9. Why did young intellectuals of this period emigrate to Europe?
10. Why were these writers called the \
Ⅲ.Questions on appreciation:
1. Analyse the structure of the whole essay, dividing it into its component parts. 2. What is the writer's central thesis? Where is it stated?
3. How does the writer develop his central thought? Does he support his opinions with convincing facts and details?
4. Do the individual paragraphs or paragraph units relate to the central thought of the whole, and develop new but related stages of the developing thought?
5. Would you consider paragraphs 7 and 8 as one unit? How do they relate to each other?
6. Do you agree with the conclusions of the writer? Give your reasons. 7. Are there any weak points in his presentation?
1. The slightest mention of the decade brings nostalgic recollections to the middle-aged (para1)
2. The rejection of Victorian gentility was, in any case, inevitable. (para3)
3. The war acted merely as a catalytic agent in this breakdown of the Victorian social structure (para3)
4. it was tempted, in America at least, to escape its responsibilities and retreat behind an air of naughty alcoholic sophistication (para4)
5. Prohibition afforded the young the additional opportunity of making their pleasures illicit (para4)
6. our young men began to enlist under foreign flags (para5)
7. they \ 8. they had outgrown towns and families (para6)
9. the returning veteran also had to face ... the hypocritical do-goodism of Prohibition (para6)
10. Something in the tension-ridden youth of America had to \
11. it was only natural that hopeful young writers, their minds and pens inflamed against war, Babbittry, and \gentility, should flock to the traditional artistic center (para7)
12. Each town had its \
Ⅴ. Translate paragraph 6 into Chinese.
Ⅵ. Look up the dictionary and explain the meaning of the italicized words\ 1. the moral and stylistic vagaries of the \ 2. the artificial walls of a provincial morality (para2) 3. the code of polite behavior (para3)
4. Prohibition afforded the young the additional opportunity (para4) 5. The war acted merely as a catalytic agent (para3) 7. crowding into Greenwich Village (para4) 8. \ 9. They fought with distinction (para6)
10. who had generally seen a considerable amount of action (para6) 11. Their energies had been whipped up (para6)
12. Something in the tension-ridden youth of America had to \ 13. The burden of the volume was that (para9)
14. money-making and keeping up with the Joneses (para9)
15. innumerable others could never be written off as sterile (para11)
Ⅶ. Look up the dictionary and explain the meaning of the following Americanisms\ 1. the first visit to a speakeasy (para1) 2. the flask-toting \
3. the \ 4. a magnolia-scented soap opera (para5)
5.against war, Babbittry, and \ 6. Each town had its \
7. the cultural boobery of our society (para9) [SRB]
1 . Webster' s New World Dictionary of the American Language 2. The Dictionary of American Slang -- Wentworth & Flexner
Ⅷ. Explain how the meaning of the following sentences is affected when the italicized words are replaced with the words in brackets:
1. The booming of American industry, with its gigantic, roaring factories, its corporate impersonality, and its large-scale aggressiveness, no longer left any room for the code of polite behavior (flourishing) (aggression)
2. it released their inhibited violent energies which, after the shooting was over, were .turned in both Europe and America to the destruction of an obsolescent nineteenth-century society (obsolete)
3. The young men of college age in 1917, knew nothing of modern warfare. (wars) 4. Those who were reluctant to serve in a foreign army talked excitedly about Preparedness (preparations)
5. business was suffering a recession that prevented the opening up of new jobs (depression)
6. Their energies had been whipped up and their naivete天真爛漫，純真無邪 destroyed by the war (innocence)
7. Instead, their ideas had been generally ignored (disregarded)
8. there was little remedy for the sensitive mind but to emigrate to Europe (migrate)
Ⅸ. Explain the meaning of the following sentences in plain, nonfigurative language:
1. we had reached an international stature that would forever prevent us from retreating behind the artificial walls of a provincial morality or the geographical protection of our two bordering oceans.
2. The war acted merely as a catalytic agent in this breakdown of the Victorian social structure.
3. this one lasted until the money ran out, until the crash of the world economic structure at the end of the decade called the party to a halt and forced the revellers to sober up and face the problems of the new age
4. Their very homes were often uncomfortable to them; they had outgrown town and families.
5. After the war, it was only natural that hopeful young writers, ttieir minds and pens inflamed against war, Babbittry, and \artistic center
6. As it became more and more fashionable throughout the country for young persons to defy the law and conventions and to add their own little matchsticks to the conflagration of \
7. Younger brothers and sisters of the war generation now began to imitate the manners of their elders and play with the toys of vulgar rebellion.
8. but since the country was blind and deaf to everything save the glint and ring of the dollar, there was little remedy for the sensitive mind but to emigrate to Europe where \do things better
Ⅹ. For each word in the column on the left, find a word or phrase of similar meaning in the column on the right. Tell which of the two is more formal or literary. amour a bitter criticism questions a big fire throw headlong exile
manifesto residence fracas demolish dissopate a love affair conflafration dispel,break up affluent a public declaration Susceptible brawl Expatriation precipitate Diatribe inquiries dwelling place rich
tear down easily influenced
Ⅺ. The prefixes \the following words:
1. resistible 9. prudent 2. material 10. pleasant 3. comparable 11. legitimate 4. safe 12. alterable 5. secure 13. logical 6. literate 14. popular 7. precise 15.sensitive
8. pure 16.cmprehensible
Ⅻ. Read the first paragraph of the text and be prepared to discuss: 1) What interest and background material does the paragraph give the reader? 2) Does the paragraph include the thesis statement -- a single sentence expressing the central hought of the piece of writing? 3) Does it include a clear indication of the direction of the writer's flow of thought? 4) Is it a well-written introductory paragraph? Give your reasons.
ⅩⅢ. Write an introductory paragraph for an essay on one of the following topics: 1. The Younger Generation in China 2. The Workers in Socialist China 3. The Peasants in Socialist China
ⅩⅣ.Topic for oral work:
What younger generation problems do we have in China today? What caused them? How can we solve them?
ⅩⅤ. Write a summary of the text within 400 words.